Dracula by Bram Stoker
Though it wasn’t the first vampire book, Dracula helped establish much of vampire lore. Some aspects got tweaked along the way (Dracula could walk in the daylight, for instance, which isn’t super interesting) (he also had really hairy hands and wasn’t even a little bit hot) (obviously this had to change), but for the most part we as a society decided to stick with the idea of the inexplicably wealthy, centuries-old bloodsucker that Bram Stoker described in this richly told gothic novel.
Perhaps Dracula’s continued prevalence in the cultural zeitgeist is because of Stoker’s simple, straightforward style of delivering information. He’s basically saying, “Here’s a bunch of stuff about vampires, take it or leave it,” and we all looked at each other and said, “Okay, we’ll take it.”